E. PAUL TORRANCE
Ellis Paul Torrance
(October 8, 1915, Milledgeville, Georgia – July 12, 2003, Athens, GA) (Aged 87)
Nationality: United States
Occupation: Psychologist, educator.
Specification: He known as the “Father of Modern Creativity”, creator of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT).
Educational psychology, Psychology of Creativity
Family: In 1959, at the age of 44, he married Pansy Nigh ( 1913-1988), his nursing student and later a nursing educator and his willing supportive and partner.
Education: Bachelor of Arts (1940) Mercer University, Master’s degree in educational psychology (1944) University of Minnesota, Ph.D. (1951) University of Michigan.
Career: In 1936 he began his teaching career at Midway Vocational High School and in 1937 at Georgia Military College. In 1945, he drafted by U.S. Army and became a counselor of disabled veterans at the University of Minnesota Counseling Bureau. In 1951 he became a director of the Survival Research of the U.S. Air Force in Colorado In 1958, he returned to the University of Minnesota and served as director of the Bureau of Educational Research until 1966. He had been the head of the Educational Psychology Dept (1966 – 1978), and professor (1978 -1984) at the University of Georgia (UGA). He retired from Georgia in 1984. In 1984, the UGA established the Torrance Center for Creativity and Talent Development.
Personality: Torrance had a kind, gentle and generous character. He was an eminence mentor and teacher and always demonstrated the respect and support for his colleagues and students.
1. Creativity. Torrance devoted his career to teaching and researching creativity. His interest in creativity emerged in 1937 from his observation that many his difficult student went on to become successful in life and work. During his working for the U.S. Air Force (1951-57), he developed his survival definition of creativity, which stated that a courageous risk- taking is essential for creativity.
Later he defines creativity as “…the process of sensing gaps or disturbing, missing elements; forming ideas or hypotheses concerning them; testing these hypotheses; and communicating the results, possibly modifying and retesting the hypotheses” (1962).
2. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) or Minnesota Tests of Creative Thinking (MTCT).
2.1. Torrance with his collegues invented the most widely known, The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, which was published in 1966. Torrance have used many of Guilfords (1950, 1956) concepts in their test construction. but in contrast to Guilford, he sought both verbal and figural activities and grouped the different subtests of the TTCT into three categories: 1. Verbal tasks using verbal stimuli. 2. Verbal tasks using non-verbal stimuli. 3. Non-verbal tasks.
2.2. He developed a benchmark method for quantifying creativity . At the beginning he used use Guilford’s (1956) four divergent thinking factors: 1. Fluency. The total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus. 2.Flexibility. the number of different categories or shifts in responses. 3.Originality. the number of unusual yet relevant ideas and the statistical rarity of the responses. 4. Elaboration. The amount of detail used to extend a response(1966, 1974).
2.3.Then Torrance decided to enhance the scoring of the figural tests. The third edition of the TTCT eliminated the Flexibility scale from the figural test, but added Resistance to Premature Closure and Abstractness of Titles as two new criterion-referenced scores on the figural (1984). Using this system, the figural tests are scored according to five norm referenced scores and 13 criterion referenced scores . So TTCT-Figural form measures five subscales: (1) fluency, (2) originality, (3) elaboration, (4) abstractness of titles and (5) resistance to premature closure.
The criterion-referenced measures include: emotional expressiveness, story-telling articulateness, Movement or actions, expressiveness of titles, syntheses if incomplete figures, synthesis if lines, if circles, unusual visualization, extending or breaking boundaries, humor, richness of imagery, colourfulness of imagery, and fantasy.
2.4. The newest version of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Goff and Torrance, 2002) measured 4 norm-referenced abilities: 1. fluency, ability to produce numerous ideas relating to the activity. 2. originality, ability to produce ideas which are not generally produced. 3. elaboration, ability to embellish ideas relating to the activity. 4. flexibility, ability to interpret similar stimulus in different ways.
2.5. Torrance and his associates administered the Minnesota Tests of Creative Thinking (MTCT) to several thousands of school children. They also completed the 40-year longitudinal study on creativity, done on 215 students that attended two Minneapolis elementary schools from 1958-1964.
Moreover Torrance is aware that the use of the TTCT, is still not able to measure the essence of creativity, that a high degree of the measured creative abilities only increases a person’s chances of behaving creatively.
3. Threshold hypothesis. Torrance proposed popular model is what has come to be known as “the threshold hypothesis”, which holds that, in a general sample, there will be a positive correlation between low creativity and intelligence scores, but a correlation will not be found with higher scores.
4. Future Problem Solving Program. Torrance created the Future Problem Solving Program and developed the Incubation Model of Teaching, which has now expanded and reached over 250,000 students internationally.
This program stimulates critical and creative thinking skills, extend perceptions of the real world, encourages students to develop a vision for the future, Integrate problem solving into the curriculum, offer authentic assessment and prepares students for leadership roles.”
He wrote: “I have always been interested in empowering children, releasing their creative potential. But first I had to measure that potential. So I have a reputation as a psychometrician, but all along I have worked with the development of creativity” (1989).
Awards: Torrance was the recipient of the Arthur Lipper Award of the World Olympics of the Mind for outstanding original contributions to human creativity, an elected member of Who’s Who in the World.
Hew was a veteran of the U.S. Army and a member of Athens First Baptist Church.
E. Paul Torrance had a total of 1,871 publications, including 88 books, 256 parts of books or cooperative volumes, 408 journal articles, and 538 reports, 64 forewords, manuals, tests and instruction materials, that have been translated into more than 32 languages.
1. Torrance, E. P. (1962). Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2. Torrance, E. P. (1965). Rewarding Creative Behavior. Experiments in Classroom Creativity. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 3. Torrance, E. P. (1966). 4. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Norms technical manual (Research Edition). Princeton, NJ: Personnel Press. 5. Torrance, E. P. (1974). Norms-technical manual: Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Lexington, MA: Ginn and Company. 6. Torrance, E.P. (1974). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Scholastic Testing Service, Inc. 7. Torrance, E. P. (1979). The search for Satori and creativity. New York: Creative Education Foundation. 8. Torrance, E. P., & Safter, H. T. (1990). The Incubation Model: Getting beyond the aha! Buffalo, NY: Bearly. 10. Torrance, E. P., & Safter, H. T. (1999). Making the creative leap beyond. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation Press. 11. Torrance, E. P., & Sisk, D. A. (1997). Gifted and talented children in the regular classroom. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation Press. 12. Torrance, E. P. (1994). Creativity: Just wanting to know. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Benedic Books. 13. Torrance, E. P. (1995) Why Fly? A philosophy of creativity. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 14. Torrance, E. P. (2001). Experiences in developing creativity measures: Insights, discoveries, decisions. Manuscript submitted for publication. 15. Goff, K., & Torrance, E. P. (2002). Abbreviated Torrance test for adults manual. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic. Testing Service, Inc.