Creativity

Quotes about Inner Genius

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Egalitarian theory of Genius

If you wish to succeed in life, make perseverance your bosom friend, experience your wise counselor, caution your elder brother, and hope your guardian genius.
Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719), English essayist, poet, playwright and politician

Take back the beauty and wit you bestow upon me; leave me my own mediocrity of agreeableness and genius, but leave me also my sincerity, my constancy, and my plain dealing; ’tis all I have to recommend me to the esteem either of others or myself.
Mary Wortley Montagu (baptized 26 May 1689 – 21 August 1762), English poet

Genius is present in every age, but the men carrying it within them remain benumbed unless extraordinary events occur to heat up and melt the mass so that it flows forth.
Denis Diderot (5 October 1713 – 31 July 1784), French philosopher, art critic, and writer

If you have a genius, industry will improve it; if you have none, industry will supply its place.
Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792), English painter

Everyone is a genius at least once a year. The real geniuses simply have their bright ideas closer together.
Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1 July 1742 – 24 February 1799), German scientist and satirist

Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it.
Johann Wolfgang Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832), German poet, writer, and philosopher

Each indecision brings its own delays and days are lost lamenting over lost days…What you can do or think you can do, begin it. For boldness has magic, power, and genius in it.
Johann Wolfgang Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832), German poet, writer, and philosopher

If children grew up according to early indications, we should have nothing but geniuses.
Johann Wolfgang Goethe

And is he honest who resists his genius or conscience only for the sake of present ease or gratification.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827), English poet, painter, and printmaker

…it seems as if all peasants and craftsman might be elevated into artists; that is, men who love their labour for its own sake, improve it by their own plastic genius and inventive skill, and thereby cultivate their intellect, ennoble their character, and exalt and refine their pleasures.
Wilhelm von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835), Prussian philosopher, philologist, diplomat

Genius is, to be sure, not a matter of arbitrariness, but rather of freedom, just as wit, love, and faith, which once shall become arts and disciplines. We should demand genius from everybody, without, however, expecting it.
Friedrich Schlegel (10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), German poet, literary critic, philosopher

Every complete man has his genius. True virtue is genius.
Friedrich Schlegel

Genius: the superhuman in man.
Victor Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885), French poet and novelist

Common sense is as rare as genius, is the basis of genius, and experience is hands and feet to every enterprise.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (25 May 1803 – 27 April 1882), American philosopher, essayist, and poet

Common sense is as rare as genius, – is the basis of genius.
Ralph Waldo Emerson 

To believe your own thought, to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for all men, — that is genius.
Ralph Waldo Emerson 

So much of our time is preparation, so much is routine, and so much retrospect, that the path of each man’s genius contracts itself to a very few hours.
Ralph Waldo Emerson 

A man should learn to detect and watch that gleam of light which flashes across his mind from within, more than the lustre of the firmament of bards and sages. Yet he dismisses without notice his thought, because it is his. In every work of genius we recognize our own rejected thoughts: they come back to us with a certain alienated majesty. Great works of art have no more affecting lesson for us than this. They teach us to abide by our spontaneous impression with good-humored inflexibility then most when the whole cry of voices is on the other side.
Ralph Waldo Emerson 

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Pathological theory of Genius. Quotes and aphorisms.

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Pathological theory of Genius states that at the basis of geniality are all sorts of abnormalities, a variety of physical and mental health problems that are manifested in eccentric behaviour, nervousness and even mental illness and insanity.

Before the beginning of great brilliance, there must be chaos. Before a brilliant person begins something great, they must look foolish to the crowd.
I Chingn ( Classic of Changes), Chinese ancient divination text (1000–750 BC)

No great genius has ever existed without some touch of madness.
Aristotle (384 – 322 BC), Greek philosopher

There is no great genius without some touch of madness.
Seneca (c. 4 BC – AD 65), Roman Stoic philosopher

It is strange that all great men should have some oddness, some little grain of folly mingled with whatever genius they possess.
Moliere (15 January 1622 – 17 February 1673), French playwright and actor

Oh! how near are genius and madness! Men imprison them and chain them, or raise statues to them.
Denis Diderot (5 October 1713 – 31 July 1784), French philosopher, art critic, and writer Diderot

Genius is sorrow’s child.
John Adams (October 30 1735 – July 4, 1826), American lawyer, author, statesman, and diplomat

I was walking among the fires of Hell, delighted with the enjoyments of Genius; which to Angels look like torment and insanity.”
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827), English poet, painter

Despair and Genius are too oft connected.
George Gordon Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), English poet

There is suffering in light; an excess burns. Flames is hostile to the wing. To burn and yet to fly, this is the miracle of genius”
Victor Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885), French poet, novelist, and dramatist

Men have called me mad but the question is not yet settled, whether madness is or is not the loftiest intelligence–whether much that is glorious; whether all that is profound–does not spring from disease of thought, from moods of mind exalted at the expense of general intellect.
Edgar Allen Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849), American writer, editor, and literary critic

In the republic of mediocrity, genius is dangerous.
Robert Green Ingersoll ( (August 11, 1833 – July 21, 1899), American lawyer and political leader

Genius is one of the many forms of insanity. Cesare Lombroso (6 November 1835 –19 October 1909), Italian criminologist and physician
A man of genius is unbearable, unless he possesses at least two things besides: gratitude and purity.
Friedrich Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900), German philosopher

Ridicule is the tribute paid to the genius by the mediocrities.
Oscar Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900), Irish playwright, novelist, and poet

Genius is a form of the life force that is deeply versed in illness, that both draws creatively from it and creates through it.
Thomas Mann (6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955), German novelist, short story writer

Genius sits in a glass house—but in an unbreakable one—conceiving ideas. After giving birth, it falls into madness. Stretches out its hand through the window toward the first person happening by. The demon’s claw rips, the iron fist grips. Before, you were a model, mocks the ironic voice between serrated teeth, for me, you are raw material to work on. I throw you against the glass wall, so that you remain stuck there, projected and stuck….
Paul Klee (18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940), Swiss-German artist.

There is in every madman a misunderstood genius whose idea, shining in his head, frightened people, and for whom delirium was the only solution to the strangulation that life had prepared for him.
Antonin Artaud (4 September 1896 – 4 March 1948), French dramatist, poet, essayist, actor

There’s a fine line between genius and insanity. I have erased this line.
Oscar Levant (December 27, 1906 – August 14, 1972), American pianist, composer, author and actor

The distance between insanity and genius is measured only by success.
Ian Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964), English author, journalist

Madness in method, that’s genius.
Frank Herbert (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986), American science fiction writer

Imperfection is beauty, madness is genius and it’s better to be absolutely ridiculous than absolutely boring.
Marilyn Monroe (June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), American actress and model

Crazy people who are productive are geniuses. Crazy people who are rich are eccentric. Crazy people who are neither productive nor rich are just plain crazy.
Michael J. Gelb (born 1952), author and public speaker specializing in creativity and innovation

Creation is messy. You want genius, you get madness; two sides of the same coin.
Steve Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011), American information technology entrepreneur and inventor

The distance between insanity and genius is measured only by success.
Bruce Feirstein (born 1956), American screenwriter and humorist

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Celebrities about Creativity

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CELEBRITIES ABOUT CREATIVITY

Success is often achieved by those who don’t know that failure is inevitable.
Coco Chanel (August 19, 1883 – January 10, 1971), French fashion designer

Those who create are rare; those who cannot are numerous. Therefore, the latter are stronger.
Coco Chanel 

When I can no longer create anything, I’ll be done for.
Coco Chanel

There is no time for cut-and-dried monotony. There is time for work. And time for love. That leaves no other time.
Coco Chanel

Innovation! One cannot be forever innovating. I want to create classics
Coco Chanel

A leader has the vision and conviction that a dream can be achieved. He inspires the power and energy to get it done.
Ralph Lauren (born October 14, 1939), American fashion designer

I’m just trying to make a smudge on the collective unconscious.
David Letterman (born April 12, 1947), American television host and comedian

I cannot sing, dance or act; what else would I be but a talk show host.
David Letterman

There is no off position on the genius switch.
David Letterman

Create the highest, grandest vision possible for your life, because you become what you believe
Oprah Winfrey (born January 29, 1954), American talk show host and producer

Follow your instincts. That’s where true wisdom manifests itself.
Oprah Winfrey

Everyone has to learn to think differently, bigger, to open to possibilities.
Oprah Winfrey

Think like a queen. A queen is not afraid to fail. Failure is another steppingstone to greatness.
Oprah Winfrey

The biggest adventure you can take is to live the life of your dreams.
Oprah Winfrey

The greatest discovery of all time is that a person can change his future by merely changing his attitude.
Oprah Winfrey

Turn your wounds into wisdom.
Oprah Winfrey

Doing the best at this moment puts you in the best place for the next moment.
Oprah Winfrey

Understand that the right to choose your own path is a sacred privilege. Use it. Dwell in possibility.
Oprah Winfrey

I don’t think I could not have been with an artist of some kind, someone creative.
Heidi Klum (born June 1, 1973), German model and television host

You want to feel that you can do something creative that you love without being picked apart and mutilated for other people’s pleasure.
Sienna Miller (born December 28, 1981), English actress and model

Knowing yourself and coming to trust your feelings and your intuition will open up your life to greater possibilities and keep you moving toward your goals. One thing I have learned is that I should trust my ‘gut’ instincts. Ultimately, only we know what is best for us.
Miranda Kerr (born 20 April 1983), Australian model

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Frank Barron – Psychology of Creativity

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FRANK BARRON
Frank Xavier Barron
(June 17, 1922, Lansford, Pennsylvania – October 6, 2002, Santa Cruz, California) (Aged 80)
Nationality: United States
Category: Scientists
Occupation: Psychologist, Professor, Non-Fiction Writer, Poet
Specification: A pioneer in the psychology of creativity and in the study of human personality, professor of Psychology at the University of California Santa Cruz. Psychology of Creativity
Gender: Male
Family: Barron married Nancy Jean Camp in 1961, and they had three children: Francis Charles Xavier, Brigid Jessica Sarah, and Anthea Rose Maeve.
Education: In 1937 he attended La Salle University, from which he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1942. He received his Master of Arts from the University of Minnesota in 1948, and his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1950.
Influences: Dante, Augustine, Yeats, Galton,Pavlov, Fechner, W. James, Freud, Jung, Bergson, Teilhard de Chardin, Binet and Piaget.
Career: Barron served the U.S. Army (1943 – 1946) in Europe as a medical sergeant. He taught as a visiting professor at Harvard, Bryn Mawr College, University of Hawaii, Wesleyan and from 1949 to 1968 worked as a founding member of the Institute of Personality Assessment and Research (IPAR) at UC Berkeley. From 1969 until his retirement in 1992 he taught courses in personality and human creativityat the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Personality: Barron had a gentle heart, great sense of humor and impressed with his erudition , subtlety of mind and love of language. He was fond of poetry and wrote a book of poems “Ghosts”.

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ACTORS AND ACTRESSES QUOTES ON CREATIVITY

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Love the art in yourself, not yourself in the art.
Konstantin Stanislavsky (January 17, 1863 –August 7, 1938), Russian actor and theatre director

Success is transient, evanescent. The real passion lies in the poignant acquisition of knowledge about all the shading and subtleties of the creative secrets.
Konstantin Stanislavsky

Talent is nothing but a prolonged period of attention and a shortened period of mental assimilation.
Konstantin Stanislavsky

In the creative process there is the father, the author of the play; the mother, the actor pregnant with the part; and the child, the role to be born.
Konstantin Stanislavsky

Remember: there are no small parts, only small actors.
Konstantin Stanislavsky

Imagination means nothing without doing.
Charles Chaplin (April 16, 1889 –December 25, 1977), English comic actor and filmmaker

All I need to make a comedy is a park, a policeman and a pretty girl
Charlie Chaplin

Courage and grace are a formidable mixture. The only place to see it is in the bullring
Marlene Dietrich (December 27, 1901 –May 6, 1992), German-American actress

I love quotations because it is a joy to find thoughts one might have, beautifully expressed with much authority by someone recognized wiser than oneself.
Marlene Dietrich

A painter paints, a musician plays, a writer writes – but a movie actor waits.
Mary Astor (May 3, 1906 – September 25, 1987), American actress.

I don’t know what is better than the work that is given to the actor — to teach the human heart the knowledge of itself.
Laurence Olivier (May 22, 1907 –July 11, 1989), British actor, director, and producer

The actor should be able to create the universe in the palm of his hand.
Laurence Olivier

Without wonder and insight, acting is just a trade. With it, it becomes creation.
Bette Davis (April 5, 1908 – October 6, 1989), American actress

People often become actresses because of something they dislike about themselves: They pretend they are someone else
Bette Davis

Create your own visual style… let it be unique for yourself and yet identifiable for others.
Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985), American actor and director

I dont believe in learning from other peoples pictures. I think you should learn from your own interior vision of things and discover, as I say, Innocently, as though there had never been anybody.”
Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985), American actor and director

I imagine hell like this: Italian punctuality, German humour and English wine.
Peter Ustinov (April 16, 1921 –March 28, 2004), English actor

Acting isn’t really a creative profession. It’s an interpretative one.
Paul Newman (January 26, 1925 – September 26, 2008), American actor, film director

We come. We go. And in between we try to understand.
Rod Steiger (April 14, 1925 – July 9, 2002), American actor

Man is a greater miracle than any god he ever invented.
Rod Steiger

When I played drunks I had to remain sober because I didn’t know how to play them when I was drunk.
Richard Burton (November 10, 1925 –August 5, 1984), Welsh actor

If I’d observed all the rules I’d never have got anywhere.
Marilyn Monroe (June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), American actress

Imperfection is beauty, madness is genius and it’s better to be absolutely ridiculous than absolutely boring.
Marilyn Monroe

Love and work are the only two real things in our lives. They belong together, otherwise it is off. Work is in itself a form of love.
Marilyn Monroe

A career is born in public — talent in privacy.
Marilyn Monroe

I don’t want to make money. I just want to be wonderful.
Marilyn Monroe

Creativity has got to start with humanity and when you’re a human being, you feel, you suffer.
Marilyn Monroe

Like any creative human being, I would like a bit more control so that it would be a little easier for me when the director says, ‘One tear, right now,’ that one tear would pop out.
Marilyn Monroe

I tried always to do better: saw always a little further. I tried to stretch myself.
Audrey Hepburn (May 4,1929 –January 20, 1993), British actress

I’ve never met a genius. A genius to me is someone who does well at something he hates. Anybody can do well at something he loves – it’s just a question of finding the subject
Clint Eastwood (born May 31, 1930), American actor and director

I feel very adventurous. There are so many doors to be opened, and I’m not afraid to look behind them.
Elizabeth Taylor (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011), British-American actress

There is a fountain of youth: it is your mind, your talents, the creativity you bring to your life and the lives of people you love. When you learn to tap this source, you will truly have defeated age.
Sophia Loren (September 20, 1934), Italian actress

A photograph can be an instant of life captured for eternity that will never cease looking back at you.
Brigitte Bardot (born 28 September 1934), French former actress and animal rights activist

Perseverance is failing 19 times and succeeding the 20th.
Julie Andrews Edwards (born 1 October 1935), British film and stage actress

Some people regard discipline as a chore. For me, it is a kind of order that sets me free to fly
Julie Andrews

The creative is the place where no one else have ever been. You have to leave the city of your comfort and go into the wilderness of your intuition.
Alan Alda (born January 28, 1936), American actor and director

You can’t get there by bus, only by hard work and risk and by not quite knowing what you’re doing. What you’ll discover will be wonderful. What you’ll discover will be yourself.
Alan Alda

Problems can become opportunities when the right people come together.
Robert Redford (born August 18, 1936), American actor, film director and producer

I love acting, and I`m not going to determine what I do based on what I fear other people might think. I do what I want to do.
Dustin Hoffman (born August 8, 1937), American actor

Stardom equals freedom. It`s the only equation that matters.
Dustin Hoffman

It’s never too late – never too late to start over, never too late to be happy.
Jane Fonda (born December 21, 1937), American actress

I found out that drama was a fascinating exercise as a way to get out of my self and into somebody else’s head.
Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942), American film actor and producer

Chaos in the midst of chaos isn’t funny, but chaos in the midst of order is.
Steve Martin ((born August 14, 1945), American actor and comedian

A joke that works is complete knowledge in a nanosecond.
Steve Martin

The mind is the limit. As long as the mind can envision the fact that you can do something, you can do it, as long as you really believe 100 percent.
Arnold Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947), Austrian-born American actor

He lives with his creativity in high gear.
John Travolta (born February 18, 1954), American actor

I have a passion for my work, and that sometimes triggers creative conflicts.
Demi Moore (born November 11, 1962), American actress

…joy is integral to all creativity. Creativity brings joy.
Matthew Fox (born July 14, 1966), American actor

I’m an artist, and the need to get inside myself and be creative and be other people is a part of who I am. I don’t imagine I’ll abandon that completely.
Gwyneth Paltrow (born September 27, 1972), American actress

Creative collaboration is awesome.
Alicia Silverstone (born October 4, 1976), American actress

I think it’s really important for actors to have another creative outlet, or for anyone, really.
Mia Wasikowska (born 14 October 1989), Australian actress

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FILM DIRECTORS QUOTES ON CREATIVITY

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FAMOUS FILM DIRECTORS AND ACTORS ABOUT CREATIVITY

Creativity is a drug I cannot live without.
Cecil B. DeMille (August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959), American film director and producer

A hunch is creativity trying to tell you something.
Frank Capra (May 18, 1897 – September 3, 1991), Sicilian-born American film director

Don’t follow trends, start trends.
Frank Capra

If you can dream it, you can do it. Always remember this whole thing was started by a mouse.
Walt Disney (December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966), American animator, director and screenwriter

It’s kind of fun to do the impossible.
Walt Disney

You can dream, create, design and build the most wonderful place in the world, but it requires people to make the dream a reality.
Walt Disney

Trust your own instinct. Your mistakes might as well be your own, instead of someone else’s.
Billy Wilder (June 22, 1906 –March 27, 2002), Austrian-born American filmmaker and screenwriter

An audience is never wrong. An individual member of it may be an imbecile, but a thousand imbeciles together in the dark – that is critical genius.
Billy Wilder

To be an artist means never to avert one’s eyes.
Akira Kurosawa (March 23, 1910 – September 6, 1998), Japanese film director, screenwriter, producer

Art lost its basic creative drive the moment it was separated from worship. It severed an umbilical cord and now lives its own sterile life, generating and degenerating itself. In former days the artist remained unknown and his work was to the glory of God.
Ingmar Bergman (July 14, 1918 –July 30, 2007) was a Swedish director, writer and producer

Film has dream, film has music. No form of art goes beyond ordinary consciousness as film does, straight to our emotions, deep into the twilight room of the soul.
Ingmar Bergman

A different language is a different vision of life.
Federico Fellini (January 20, 1920 – October 31, 1993) was an Italian film director and scriptwriter

What is an artist? A provincial who finds himself somewhere between a physical reality and a metaphysical one…. It’s this in-between that I’m calling a province, this frontier country between the tangible world and the intangible one—which is really the realm of the artist.
Federico Fellini

Realism is a bad word. In a sense everything is realistic. I see no line between the imaginary and the real.
Federico Fellini

All art is autobiographical; the pearl is the oyster’s autobiography.
Federico Fellini

A film is – or should be – more like music than like fiction. It should be a progression of moods and feelings. The theme, what’s behind the emotion, the meaning, all that comes later.
Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999), American film director and screenwriter

If it can be written, or thought, it can be filmed.
Stanley Kubrick

If you can talk brilliantly about a problem, it can create the consoling illusion that it has been mastered.
Stanley Kubrick

What the hell does it all mean anyhow? Nothing. Zero. Zilch. Nothing comes to anything. And yet, there’s no shortage of idiots to babble. Not me. I have a vision.
Woody Allen (December 1, 1935),American screenwriter and director

If you’re not failing every now and again, it’s a sign you’re not doing anything very innovative.
Woody Allen

You ought to love what you’re doing because, especially in a movie, over time you really will start to hate it.
Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939), American film director and producer

Art depends on luck and talent.
Francis Ford Coppola

Anything you build on a large scale or with intense passion invites chaos.
Francis Ford Coppola

I realized I probably wouldn’t make another film that cuts through commercial and creative things like ‘Godfather’ or ‘Apocalypse.’
Francis Ford Coppola

Life is very, very complicated, and so films should be allowed to be, too.
David Lynch (born January 20, 1946), American filmmaker and television director

The concept of absurdity is something I’m attracted to.
David Lynch

I dream for a living.
Steven Spielberg (born December 18, 1946), American film director and screenwriter

Only a generation of readers will span a generation of writers.
Steven Spielberg

You have many years ahead of you to create the dreams that we can’t even imagine dreaming. You have done more for the collective unconscious of this planet than you will ever know.
Steven Spielberg

I actually think one of my strengths is my storytelling.
Quentin Tarantino (born March 27, 1963), American film director and screenwriter

I steal from every movie ever made.
Quentin Tarantino

When I’m writing something, I try not to get analytical about it as I’m doing it, as I’m writing it.
Quentin Tarantino

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Ellis Paul Torrance – Father of Modern Creativity

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E. PAUL TORRANCE
Ellis Paul Torrance
(October 8, 1915, Milledgeville, Georgia – July 12, 2003, Athens, GA) (Aged 87)
Nationality: United States
Category: Scientists
Occupation: Psychologist, educator.
Specification: He known as the “Father of Modern Creativity”, creator of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT).
Educational psychology, Psychology of Creativity
Gender: Male
Family: In 1959, at the age of 44, he married Pansy Nigh ( 1913-1988), his nursing student and later a nursing educator and his willing supportive and partner.
Education: Bachelor of Arts (1940) Mercer University, Master’s degree in educational psychology (1944) University of Minnesota, Ph.D. (1951) University of Michigan.
Career: In 1936 he began his teaching career at Midway Vocational High School and in 1937 at Georgia Military College. In 1945, he drafted by U.S. Army and became a counselor of disabled veterans at the University of Minnesota Counseling Bureau. In 1951 he became a director of the Survival Research of the U.S. Air Force in Colorado In 1958, he returned to the University of Minnesota and served as director of the Bureau of Educational Research until 1966. He had been the head of the Educational Psychology Dept (1966 – 1978), and professor (1978 -1984) at the University of Georgia (UGA). He retired from Georgia in 1984. In 1984, the UGA established the Torrance Center for Creativity and Talent Development.
Personality: Torrance had a kind, gentle and generous character. He was an eminence mentor and teacher and always demonstrated the respect and support for his colleagues and students.
Major contributions:
1. Creativity. Torrance devoted his career to teaching and researching creativity. His interest in creativity emerged in 1937 from his observation that many his difficult student went on to become successful in life and work. During his working for the U.S. Air Force (1951-57), he developed his survival definition of creativity, which stated that a courageous risk- taking is essential for creativity.
Later he defines creativity as “…the process of sensing gaps or disturbing, missing elements; forming ideas or hypotheses concerning them; testing these hypotheses; and communicating the results, possibly modifying and retesting the hypotheses” (1962).
2. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) or Minnesota Tests of Creative Thinking (MTCT).
2.1. Torrance with his collegues invented the most widely known, The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, which was published in 1966. Torrance have used many of Guilfords (1950, 1956) concepts in their test construction. but in contrast to Guilford, he sought both verbal and figural activities and grouped the different subtests of the TTCT into three categories: 1. Verbal tasks using verbal stimuli. 2. Verbal tasks using non-verbal stimuli. 3. Non-verbal tasks.
2.2. He developed a benchmark method for quantifying creativity . At the beginning he used use Guilford’s (1956) four divergent thinking factors: 1. Fluency. The total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus. 2.Flexibility. the number of different categories or shifts in responses. 3.Originality. the number of unusual yet relevant ideas and the statistical rarity of the responses. 4. Elaboration. The amount of detail used to extend a response(1966, 1974).
2.3.Then Torrance decided to enhance the scoring of the figural tests. The third edition of the TTCT eliminated the Flexibility scale from the figural test, but added Resistance to Premature Closure and Abstractness of Titles as two new criterion-referenced scores on the figural (1984). Using this system, the figural tests are scored according to five norm referenced scores and 13 criterion referenced scores . So TTCT-Figural form measures five subscales: (1) fluency, (2) originality, (3) elaboration, (4) abstractness of titles and (5) resistance to premature closure.
The criterion-referenced measures include: emotional expressiveness, story-telling articulateness, Movement or actions, expressiveness of titles, syntheses if incomplete figures, synthesis if lines, if circles, unusual visualization, extending or breaking boundaries, humor, richness of imagery, colourfulness of imagery, and fantasy.
2.4. The newest version of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Goff and Torrance, 2002) measured 4 norm-referenced abilities: 1. fluency, ability to produce numerous ideas relating to the activity. 2. originality, ability to produce ideas which are not generally produced. 3. elaboration, ability to embellish ideas relating to the activity. 4. flexibility, ability to interpret similar stimulus in different ways.
2.5. Torrance and his associates administered the Minnesota Tests of Creative Thinking (MTCT) to several thousands of school children. They also completed the 40-year longitudinal study on creativity, done on 215 students that attended two Minneapolis elementary schools from 1958-1964.
Moreover Torrance is aware that the use of the TTCT, is still not able to measure the essence of creativity, that a high degree of the measured creative abilities only increases a person’s chances of behaving creatively.
3. Threshold hypothesis. Torrance proposed popular model is what has come to be known as “the threshold hypothesis”, which holds that, in a general sample, there will be a positive correlation between low creativity and intelligence scores, but a correlation will not be found with higher scores.
4. Future Problem Solving Program. Torrance created the Future Problem Solving Program and developed the Incubation Model of Teaching, which has now expanded and reached over 250,000 students internationally.
This program stimulates critical and creative thinking skills, extend perceptions of the real world, encourages students to develop a vision for the future, Integrate problem solving into the curriculum, offer authentic assessment and prepares students for leadership roles.”
He wrote: “I have always been interested in empowering children, releasing their creative potential. But first I had to measure that potential. So I have a reputation as a psychometrician, but all along I have worked with the development of creativity” (1989).
Awards: Torrance was the recipient of the Arthur Lipper Award of the World Olympics of the Mind for outstanding original contributions to human creativity, an elected member of Who’s Who in the World.
Hew was a veteran of the U.S. Army and a member of Athens First Baptist Church.

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Major works:
E. Paul Torrance had a total of 1,871 publications, including 88 books, 256 parts of books or cooperative volumes, 408 journal articles, and 538 reports, 64 forewords, manuals, tests and instruction materials, that have been translated into more than 32 languages.
1. Torrance, E. P. (1962). Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2. Torrance, E. P. (1965). Rewarding Creative Behavior. Experiments in Classroom Creativity. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 3. Torrance, E. P. (1966). 4. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Norms technical manual (Research Edition). Princeton, NJ: Personnel Press. 5. Torrance, E. P. (1974). Norms-technical manual: Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Lexington, MA: Ginn and Company. 6. Torrance, E.P. (1974). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Scholastic Testing Service, Inc. 7. Torrance, E. P. (1979). The search for Satori and creativity. New York: Creative Education Foundation. 8. Torrance, E. P., & Safter, H. T. (1990). The Incubation Model: Getting beyond the aha! Buffalo, NY: Bearly. 10. Torrance, E. P., & Safter, H. T. (1999). Making the creative leap beyond. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation Press. 11. Torrance, E. P., & Sisk, D. A. (1997). Gifted and talented children in the regular classroom. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation Press. 12. Torrance, E. P. (1994). Creativity: Just wanting to know. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Benedic Books. 13. Torrance, E. P. (1995) Why Fly? A philosophy of creativity. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 14. Torrance, E. P. (2001). Experiences in developing creativity measures: Insights, discoveries, decisions. Manuscript submitted for publication. 15. Goff, K., & Torrance, E. P. (2002). Abbreviated Torrance test for adults manual. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic. Testing Service, Inc.