Gustav Theodor Fechner
(April 19, 1801, Groß Särchen, near Muskau, Lower Lusatia, (now Żarki Wielkie in commune Trzebiel, Poland) – November 28, 1887, Leipzig, Germany) (aged 86)
Occupation: Psychologist, philosopher, physicist and writer.
Specification: Founder of psychophysics, one of the founders of modern experimental psychology
Gustav Fechner Quotes:
1. Those only have had great influence in the world who have recognized the spiritual tendency of the time in which they lived and have directed their free action and thought into that tendency.
2. Man lives on earth not once, but three times: the first stage of his life is his continual sleep; the second, sleeping and waking by turns; the third, waking forever.
3. A Goethe, a Schiller, a Napoleon, a Luther, still live among us, thinking and acting in us, as awakened creative individuals…
4. The mind of man is alike indistinguishably his own possession and that of the higher intelligences, and what proceeds from it belongs equally to both always, but in different ways.
5. Have the best constantly in mind, and be careful only that the memory that you yourself are to leave behind shall be a blessing to you in the future.
Frank Xavier Barron
(June 17, 1922, Lansford, Pennsylvania – October 6, 2002, Santa Cruz, California) (Aged 80)
Nationality: United States
Occupation: Psychologist, Professor, Non-Fiction Writer, Poet
Specification: A pioneer in the psychology of creativity and in the study of human personality, professor of Psychology at the University of California Santa Cruz. Psychology of Creativity
Family: Barron married Nancy Jean Camp in 1961, and they had three children: Francis Charles Xavier, Brigid Jessica Sarah, and Anthea Rose Maeve.
Education: In 1937 he attended La Salle University, from which he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1942. He received his Master of Arts from the University of Minnesota in 1948, and his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1950.
Influences: Dante, Augustine, Yeats, Galton,Pavlov, Fechner, W. James, Freud, Jung, Bergson, Teilhard de Chardin, Binet and Piaget.
Career: Barron served the U.S. Army (1943 – 1946) in Europe as a medical sergeant. He taught as a visiting professor at Harvard, Bryn Mawr College, University of Hawaii, Wesleyan and from 1949 to 1968 worked as a founding member of the Institute of Personality Assessment and Research (IPAR) at UC Berkeley. From 1969 until his retirement in 1992 he taught courses in personality and human creativityat the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Personality: Barron had a gentle heart, great sense of humor and impressed with his erudition , subtlety of mind and love of language. He was fond of poetry and wrote a book of poems “Ghosts”.
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E. PAUL TORRANCE
Ellis Paul Torrance
(October 8, 1915, Milledgeville, Georgia – July 12, 2003, Athens, GA) (Aged 87)
Nationality: United States
Occupation: Psychologist, educator.
Specification: He known as the “Father of Modern Creativity”, creator of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT).
Educational psychology, Psychology of Creativity
Family: In 1959, at the age of 44, he married Pansy Nigh ( 1913-1988), his nursing student and later a nursing educator and his willing supportive and partner.
Education: Bachelor of Arts (1940) Mercer University, Master’s degree in educational psychology (1944) University of Minnesota, Ph.D. (1951) University of Michigan.
Career: In 1936 he began his teaching career at Midway Vocational High School and in 1937 at Georgia Military College. In 1945, he drafted by U.S. Army and became a counselor of disabled veterans at the University of Minnesota Counseling Bureau. In 1951 he became a director of the Survival Research of the U.S. Air Force in Colorado In 1958, he returned to the University of Minnesota and served as director of the Bureau of Educational Research until 1966. He had been the head of the Educational Psychology Dept (1966 – 1978), and professor (1978 -1984) at the University of Georgia (UGA). He retired from Georgia in 1984. In 1984, the UGA established the Torrance Center for Creativity and Talent Development.
Personality: Torrance had a kind, gentle and generous character. He was an eminence mentor and teacher and always demonstrated the respect and support for his colleagues and students.
1. Creativity. Torrance devoted his career to teaching and researching creativity. His interest in creativity emerged in 1937 from his observation that many his difficult student went on to become successful in life and work. During his working for the U.S. Air Force (1951-57), he developed his survival definition of creativity, which stated that a courageous risk- taking is essential for creativity.
Later he defines creativity as “…the process of sensing gaps or disturbing, missing elements; forming ideas or hypotheses concerning them; testing these hypotheses; and communicating the results, possibly modifying and retesting the hypotheses” (1962).
2. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) or Minnesota Tests of Creative Thinking (MTCT).
2.1. Torrance with his collegues invented the most widely known, The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, which was published in 1966. Torrance have used many of Guilfords (1950, 1956) concepts in their test construction. but in contrast to Guilford, he sought both verbal and figural activities and grouped the different subtests of the TTCT into three categories: 1. Verbal tasks using verbal stimuli. 2. Verbal tasks using non-verbal stimuli. 3. Non-verbal tasks.
2.2. He developed a benchmark method for quantifying creativity . At the beginning he used use Guilford’s (1956) four divergent thinking factors: 1. Fluency. The total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus. 2.Flexibility. the number of different categories or shifts in responses. 3.Originality. the number of unusual yet relevant ideas and the statistical rarity of the responses. 4. Elaboration. The amount of detail used to extend a response(1966, 1974).
2.3.Then Torrance decided to enhance the scoring of the figural tests. The third edition of the TTCT eliminated the Flexibility scale from the figural test, but added Resistance to Premature Closure and Abstractness of Titles as two new criterion-referenced scores on the figural (1984). Using this system, the figural tests are scored according to five norm referenced scores and 13 criterion referenced scores . So TTCT-Figural form measures five subscales: (1) fluency, (2) originality, (3) elaboration, (4) abstractness of titles and (5) resistance to premature closure.
The criterion-referenced measures include: emotional expressiveness, story-telling articulateness, Movement or actions, expressiveness of titles, syntheses if incomplete figures, synthesis if lines, if circles, unusual visualization, extending or breaking boundaries, humor, richness of imagery, colourfulness of imagery, and fantasy.
2.4. The newest version of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Goff and Torrance, 2002) measured 4 norm-referenced abilities: 1. fluency, ability to produce numerous ideas relating to the activity. 2. originality, ability to produce ideas which are not generally produced. 3. elaboration, ability to embellish ideas relating to the activity. 4. flexibility, ability to interpret similar stimulus in different ways.
2.5. Torrance and his associates administered the Minnesota Tests of Creative Thinking (MTCT) to several thousands of school children. They also completed the 40-year longitudinal study on creativity, done on 215 students that attended two Minneapolis elementary schools from 1958-1964.
Moreover Torrance is aware that the use of the TTCT, is still not able to measure the essence of creativity, that a high degree of the measured creative abilities only increases a person’s chances of behaving creatively.
3. Threshold hypothesis. Torrance proposed popular model is what has come to be known as “the threshold hypothesis”, which holds that, in a general sample, there will be a positive correlation between low creativity and intelligence scores, but a correlation will not be found with higher scores.
4. Future Problem Solving Program. Torrance created the Future Problem Solving Program and developed the Incubation Model of Teaching, which has now expanded and reached over 250,000 students internationally.
This program stimulates critical and creative thinking skills, extend perceptions of the real world, encourages students to develop a vision for the future, Integrate problem solving into the curriculum, offer authentic assessment and prepares students for leadership roles.”
He wrote: “I have always been interested in empowering children, releasing their creative potential. But first I had to measure that potential. So I have a reputation as a psychometrician, but all along I have worked with the development of creativity” (1989).
Awards: Torrance was the recipient of the Arthur Lipper Award of the World Olympics of the Mind for outstanding original contributions to human creativity, an elected member of Who’s Who in the World.
Hew was a veteran of the U.S. Army and a member of Athens First Baptist Church.
E. Paul Torrance had a total of 1,871 publications, including 88 books, 256 parts of books or cooperative volumes, 408 journal articles, and 538 reports, 64 forewords, manuals, tests and instruction materials, that have been translated into more than 32 languages.
1. Torrance, E. P. (1962). Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2. Torrance, E. P. (1965). Rewarding Creative Behavior. Experiments in Classroom Creativity. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 3. Torrance, E. P. (1966). 4. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Norms technical manual (Research Edition). Princeton, NJ: Personnel Press. 5. Torrance, E. P. (1974). Norms-technical manual: Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Lexington, MA: Ginn and Company. 6. Torrance, E.P. (1974). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Scholastic Testing Service, Inc. 7. Torrance, E. P. (1979). The search for Satori and creativity. New York: Creative Education Foundation. 8. Torrance, E. P., & Safter, H. T. (1990). The Incubation Model: Getting beyond the aha! Buffalo, NY: Bearly. 10. Torrance, E. P., & Safter, H. T. (1999). Making the creative leap beyond. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation Press. 11. Torrance, E. P., & Sisk, D. A. (1997). Gifted and talented children in the regular classroom. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation Press. 12. Torrance, E. P. (1994). Creativity: Just wanting to know. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Benedic Books. 13. Torrance, E. P. (1995) Why Fly? A philosophy of creativity. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 14. Torrance, E. P. (2001). Experiences in developing creativity measures: Insights, discoveries, decisions. Manuscript submitted for publication. 15. Goff, K., & Torrance, E. P. (2002). Abbreviated Torrance test for adults manual. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic. Testing Service, Inc.
JOY PAUL GUILFORD
(March 7, 1897, Marquette, Nebraska, USA – November 26, 1987, Los Angeles) (Aged 90)
Nationality: United States
Specification: Author of a three-dimensional model of the intellect and the concept of the Divergent Thinking. Applied psychology: psychometrics. One of the founders of the Psychology of Creativity.
Family: His wife – Ruth, his daughter – Joan S. McGuire (Author of the book about her father “An Odyssey of the SOI Mode”).
Education: Guilford graduated from the University of Nebraska. (1918-1924). In 1924 he entered the psychology Ph.D. program at Cornell University, where he studied under Edward Titchener and Kurt Koffka. He was awarded the Ph.D. in 1927.
Career: Guilford taught at the University of Kansas (1927 – 1928), worked as Associate Professor at University of Nebraska (1928 – 1940) and Psychology professor at the University of Southern California (1940 – 1967). In 1941 he entered the U.S. Army and served as Director of Psychological Research Unit No. 3 at Santa Ana Army Air Base.
1. Structure of Intellect (SOI) or (SI): three-dimensional model.
Guilford proposed that intelligence is not a unitary concept and introduced a three-dimensional theoretical model of the Structure of the intellect, according to which the intellect may be represented by three aspects:
– operation (cognition, memory, divergent production, convergent production, evaluation),
– products (units, classes, relations, systems, transformations, and implications),
– content (visual, auditory, symbolic, semantic, behavioral).
The 5 x 6 x 5 figure provides 150 possible abilities (1955). The final version of the SOI model (1988) was resembled as a cube with 3 dimesions, or 6 x 5 x 6 figure. In this model Guilford introduced some new operations (cognition, memory recording, memory retention, convergent production, divergent production, and evaluation). That yields 180 possible unique abilities, which are correlated with each other.
2. Creativity. Guilford in his 1950 American Psychological Association (APA) presidential address emphasized the central significance of creative talent for industry, science, arts and education and the need for more research into the nature of creativity. He developed a theory of creativity, in which he described creativity as sensitivity to problems (1950); as divergent thinking and ability to generate multiple ideas (1959), creation of new patterns, a transformation of knowledge and meaning or use the functions of objects in a new way (1962, 1967).
3. Divergent thinking. Guilford first proposed the concept of Divergent Thinking in the 1950s and later introduced its developed model as the main ingredient of creativity (1976). Thus he directly associated divergent thinking with creativity, appointing it several characteristics:
1. Fluency (the ability to produce great number of ideas or problem solutions).
2. Flexibility (the ability to simultaneously propose a variety of approaches to a specific problem).
3. Originality (the ability to produce new, original ideas).
4. Elaboration (the ability to systematize and organize the details of an idea in a head and carry it out).
He also emphasized the distinction between convergent and divergent thinking.
4. Psychometric study of human intelligence. Guilford is one of the leaders of the psychometric school of research on intelligence, creativity and personality. He was a pioneer in the development of a system of psychological tests for the study of productive thought and creative abilities of the individual. He designed numerous tests that measured divergent or creative thinking and the intellectual ability of creative people.
Guilford’s methods have been widely used with the practical aim of identifying the creative potentialities of engineers and scientific workers and gifted students.
5. Honors and awards: President of the Psychometric Society(1938); President of the Western Psychological Association (1946); President of the American Psychological Association (1949); Doctor of Laws (University of Nebraska.1952); PhD, Sociology (University of Southern California, 1962), Gold Medal of the American Psychological Foundation (1983).
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Sigismund Shlomo Freud
(May 6, 1856, Freiberg, Austro-Hungary (now Příbor, Czech Republic) – September 23, 1939, London, England) (aged 83)
Occupation: Psychologist, psychiatrist
Specification: Founder of Psychoanalysis. He made tremendous impact on psychology, psychotherapy, art and on the culture in general.
Parents: His father Jakob, a wool merchant, was 41 and mother Amalié (née Nathansohn), the third wife of Jakob, was 21. Sigmund was the first of eight children in family
Education: Freud went to the University of Vienna aged 17. He received his M.D. degree in 1881 at the age of 25.
Influences: Brentano, Breuer, Darwin, Hartmann, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Shakespeare, Goethe, Dostoyevsky.
In 1886 Freud resigned his hospital post, entered private practice specializing in “nervous disorders” and married Martha Bernays, the granddaughter of Isaac Bernays, a Chief Rabbi in Hamburg. The couple had six children
Freud battled mouth cancer the last several years of his life, but continued to smoke cigars.
With Nazi occupation of Austria in 1938 Freud with his wife and daughter fled to England. Four of Freud’s five sisters died in concentration camps.
1. Theory of Psychoanalysis and fundamental concepts of Depth Psychology which based on:
a) theory of the unconscious mind (also he didn’t invent this idea, but put into clinical practice and made it popular). He wrote: “The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water’; b) statement that libido or sexual instinct and desire (Eros or libido) is the primary motivational energy of human life and later in Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920)- death drive (Thanatos) was added; c) theory of sublimation, as the process of deflecting sexual instincts into acts of higher social valuation; d) interpretation of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires. Freud called dreams the “royal road to the unconscious”. Dream mechanisms: condensation, displacement, identification, composition, inversion, secondary elaboration; e) “repression” as the key factor in the operation of the unconscious and defence mechanism, which together with other mechanisms (denial, idealization, splitting, identification, rationalization) to manipulate, deny, or distort reality for protect the ego; f) theory of unconscious primary process and conscious secondary process; g) Economic, homeostatic model of psyche, tendency of mental apparatus “to keep as low as possible the total amount of the excitations”.
2. Topology of the psyche. In 1899 Freud developed his first topology of the psyche or previous topographic schema: conscious, unconscious, and preconscious . In his later work (1920, 1923), he proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three parts: ego which operates on the Reality Principle, super-ego (moral component of the psyche), and Id, which operates on the Pleasure Principle, satisfying urges for food and sex. “The ego is not master in its own house”.
3. Development of psychics. a) Personality is developed by the person’s childhood experiences; b) personality develops during childhood through a series of psychosexual stages: 1) oral (birth-1 year), 2) anal (1-3), 3) phallic (3-6), 4) latent (6-12). 5) genital (12 -); c) the stage at which a person becomes fixated in childhood has a decisive influence on adult personality; d) Oedipus complex – boys passed through the phallic stage in which they fixated on the mother as a sexual object and on the father as a rival (In girls – Electra complex).
4. Clinical practice of psychoanalysis. a) Freud created the clinical practice of psychoanalysis as dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst or “talking cure”; b) the goal of psychoanalysis, was to bring subconsciously repressed thoughts and feelings into consciousness in order to free the patient from the painful thoughts and feelings. “Where id was, there ego shall be”; c) major points of Freudian therapy: Relaxed atmosphere, resistance, transference, catharsis, insight; d) he developed the therapeutic techniques, including the use of Free association and Dream analysis. Freud wrote: “Analysis does not set out to make pathological reactions impossible, but to give the patient’s ego freedom to decide one way or another”.
5. Culture. Freud as materialist and naturalist conceived civilization basically in terms of the basic human instinct or drive.
“It is impossible to overlook the extent to which civilization is built upon a renunciation of instinct”.
6. Religion. Freud maintained that “Religion is an illusion and it derives its strength from the fact that it falls in with our instinctual desires’. He perceived religion, with its suppression of man’s violent nature, restraint of the death drive, aggression and violence,
7. Creativity. a) Creativity is identified with the work of the unconscious, with the manifestation of the energy of the id and the power of libido by means of most beneficial defence mechanism- sublimation; b) Freud, following Schiller, wrote that we can gain access to “involuntary ideas” by relaxing our rational control over the imagination; c) fantasies is considered as Fulfilments of ambitious and erotic wishes, as escape from inner conflict, as a “neutral zone”, free space of pure imagination; d) creative writer is borderline neurotics and creativity is a substitute for neurotic symptoms; e) there is strong analogy between artistic creation, child’s play, dreams, day-dreaming, fantasy and humour.
Freud remains one of the most influential figures in today’s psychology. Many modern psychotherapists follow Freud’s approach, even if they reject his theories.
Freud quotes: 1. Love and work… work and love, that’s all there is. 2. Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar. 3. Civilization began the first time an angry person cast a word instead of a rock.
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William Lewis (Louis) Stern
(29 April 1871, Berlin, Germany– 27 March 1938, Durham, North Carolina, USA) (aged 66)
Occupation: Psychologist, philosopher
Specification: Founder of personalistic psychology and European psychotechnique, a pioneer in the fields of child psychology, differential, educational, legal (forensic) psychology. Inventor of the concept of the intelligence quotient, or IQ.
Family: Grandson of the German-Jewish reform philosopher Sigismund Stern. Father Sigismund Stern (owner of small business), mother Rosa Stern (cousin of her husband).
W. Stern was married to Clara Joseephy, a psychologist. They had 3 children: Hilde, Eva and Günther, who became an German writer and philosopher.
Student of Ebbinghaus, was influenced by Binet.
Education: Stern graduated Friedrich-Wilhelm University of Berlin (1888-1893) (today the Humboldt University). He received his PhD in psychology from the University of Berlin in 1893. (Doctoral dissertation “Analogy in popular thought”.
Career: He taught at the University of Breslau (Wrocław ) (1897-1916), at the University of Hamburg, Professor of Psychology (1916-1933), where he also remained until 1933 as Director of the Psychological Laboratory. In 1931 he was elected President of the German Psychological Society. In 1933, fleeing from the Nazi regime, he emigrated first to the Netherlands, then to the United States where he taught at the Duke University (1933-1938).
“Happiness is the consequence of personal effort. You fight for it, strive for it, insist upon it. You have to participate relentlessly in the manifestations of your own blessings. And once you have achieved a state of happiness, you must never become lax about maintaining it. You must make a mighty effort to keep swimming upward into that happiness forever, to stay afloat on top of it. If you don’t, you will leak away your innate contentment.”
Elizabeth Gilbert, Eat Pray Love