Creative Vision of The World
Personality Creative Vision of the World is a complex hierarchical system consisting of values and worldview attitudes, emotional position to the world, as well as the creative method, understood as a multi-level techniques and as a tool and means of its transformation.
In the basis of holistic creative vision is a creative interaction with the world. This interaction has complex, multi-level nature, which reflects universal structure of all integrative objects. This fundamental, “going-all-the-way-through” structure is reflected in a hierarchical creative attitude of the personality, which includes axiological, cognitive, affective and behavioral components, where the first component is not the highest separated level of the structure, but its basic system-forming factor, the core and centre of organization.
Each of these components manifests itself through the means of the appropriate pairs of opposed, complement mechanisms of creativity:
Table 1. System of complementary mechanisms of Creativity
|Components||Pairs of Mechanisms|
|Axiological||Idealization – Problematization|
|Cognitive||Decentration – Simplification|
|Emotional||Identification – Meditation|
|Behavioral||Self-actualization – Personification|
These components are realized by means of the following social psychological mechanisms of creative activity: idealization, decentration, identification and self – actualization, and each of its mechanisms manifests itself in real creative activity in the form of concrete means, rules and techniques. The essential condition of creative interaction of a personality with an external world is the realization of a unified system of mutually connected mechanisms.
Idealization is understood as vision, seeking and revealing of the ideal nature of object, a mental constructions of its ideal image in which supreme values are harmoniously blended and the vital contradictions are resolved. It is creating and fulfillment of ideal plan and underlying task, generation of daring hypothesis, embodiment of pragmatic and aesthetic ideal, realization of ideal final result.
Problematization is a discovery and point thinning of vital contradictions of the object, a process of problem finding and problem determination. It is perception and search for shortcomings, blanks, discord, asymmetry and imperfections of object. It is a strive for splitting of the united object, finding opposite features of phenomena, vision its dark sides and “shadows”.
Decentrationmanifests itself as a process of creation different approaches toward an object, changing one’s mind and taking into account various points of view. This mechanism represents the process of mental replacement of habitual connections by different unusual ones, deviation from traditional patterns of thinking, destruction of traditional notions, mental inertia and stereotypes overcoming. It is the process of generation various unconventional ideas and unusual images.
Simplification is understood as getting rid of all complicated, inconsequential, tangled, insignificant and confusing, as achievement of clarity and elegance of the form and at the same time depth and accuracy of the contents. It is ability to concentrate upon the essence of an object, express its complexity by means of simple and clear notions. It is capacity to choose best one combination, basing on criteria of hidden order, harmony and beauty.
Identification is realized by means of active immersion and embodiment in objects and their circumstances, blending with them and experiencing emotional resonance. By means of this mechanism, the personality is absorbed in the object of material and non-material nature, it is transformed into them and gets to know their internal impulses, circumstances and logic of development.
Meditationis alienation and feelings of isolation from the external and inner world, maintaining necessary distance from the object of interaction, impassive and fresh perception of its nature, real relationships, its harmony, beauty and symmetry. It is a vision of the world and oneself in a new way through defamilirization or making familiar things and phenomena strange.
Self-actualization is understood as a process of the most complete revelation and development of one’s personal potentials, as a productive and integrated self-realization of creative possibilities.
Mechanism of self-actualization reflects not only free and subject’s spontaneous self-expression, but its internal activity, ability to make efforts, aimed at the self-mobilization, and highest possible realization of one’s own creative potential.
Integrated self-fulfillment involves realization of ideal designs, plans and models, spontaneous self-expression, self-unfolding, self-determination and self-assertion.
Personification is an animation and inspiration of the objects, endowing them with human properties, subject’s characteristics and recognition of their independence and their right to self determination and self-development. It is letting objects to go, getting them right on free activity, letting them take its own direction. Besides this mechanism manifests itself as creation of a self-generating and self-developing structures which independently move to an ideal goal, making an unified well-balanced system, capable of an independent search and productive reconciliation of its contradictions.
Major stages, mechanisms and techniques of Creative Vision
Creative interaction with the world is rich not only in content, but also in temporal structure, which includes series of consecutive stages: perception and emotional experience of objects, their analysis, comprehension and operating them.
Creative Perception of reality starts with releasing from the traditional systems and notions, stereotypes returning to the primordial ignorance, to “nothing”, to origin and source of the world aloofness from the world is naturally replaced by insight, ecstasy a surprise at the riches and beauty the world.
The complete renunciation from one’s “Self” with its distortive internal impulses and the load of acquired knowledge gives rise to the new world, in all its cleanliness freshness and beauty.
Creative consciousness independently reduces the threshold of sensation, increases their intensity concentrates attention on each of them, simultaneously synthesizing them into a bright unified image. Activity of the perception reveals itself in consideration the object from different angles, it allows to notice something new, mysterious, handsome, subtlety and details, predict their future and the ideal essence.
Creative Emotional experience.The creative perception of reality is full of emotional experience and enjoyment of the colors, sounds and shapes of an object. As a special kind of trans-personal experience we define blending, unification with an object of perception, up to complete immersion into its space, time and essence.
Hence, the complete saturated of the peak experiencing, “assimilation” with another object, is naturally followed by the cognitive removal, impassive contemplation of its structure, harmony and beauty.
While the creative perception starts with the getting rid of the stereotypes and fixations, the creative analysis of the reality is caused by doubts releasing from the captivity of the common since, denial of traditional theoretical concepts.
Creative Thinking consists of abilities to penetrate into the essence of the object, to separate the signs and single out strong opposite and also masked but useful one’s. At the same time, it reveals itself in free transition to its over – and undersystems, to understanding causes and consequences of their activities, unfolding of temporal structures de-termination of trajectory of their development.
Volumetric and polyphonic vision of the objects is maintained by means of creation of different approaches to their exploration application of various points of view of professionals, dilettantes, geniuses, children, living and inanimate natural objects.
Creative analysis also implies the revelation of all contradicting systems, allocation and intensification of the main, vital elements, that determine the line of development.
Creative Comprehension of the objects and phenomena of reality consists of the prediction and anticipation of their future conditions, mental creation of ideal properties and circumstances. It also includes resacralization of the objects, acceptance of its universal value, understanding it as a necessary link in the Universal chain of events, embodiment of the clots of human spirit, labor and emotions in it reflecting essence of Absolute.
Creative Manipulations. Creative interaction with the world consists not only of perception and recognition of its ideal essence and submission to its main lows, but also of spontaneous, expressive self-revelation striving to play with the essence and forms of the world a wish to break usual connections to over come causality and time and of experience its pliability and plasticity.
Creative attitude towards the world always includes some elements of the game, risk and humor acquisition of fantastic power ability to manipulate its objects ideals and laws. Creative personality consciously brings an intrigue mystery and paradox into its attitude towards the world fills it with problems, intensifies conflicts, endows the objects with the subject’s attributes and determines the rules of the game. It revives inanimate objects reinforces and strengthens their essence fills them with the signs and properties of the ideal, set them in paradoxal situations, splits them into numerous constituents, creating new and useful combinations and patterns out of them.
In this case, the desire for creative manipulation of the objects of the world is based on the realization that the reality is already implicitly contains in itself its own future, that everything in nature exists only in an extremely enlarged or reduced, expanded or collapsed over time, that all is connected to everything and just the natural evolution or deliberate experimentation with reality can arouse and build new relationships, substance and form.
The complexity, multilateral and informative riches of personality’s interaction with the world is compressed, summarized and lined up by means of a special method, represented in an unfolding algorithm that includes a series of consecutive operations and directed intellectual efforts.
Method of creative dialogue personality with the World
1. Creative Perception
1. Purification. Return to the beginning. Stop the time, tear all existing connections, return to the originality primordial ignorance, to “Nothing”, emptiness and silence of the world.
2. Bright, clear and keen perception of the surrounding object’s signs.
a) Percept solely sounds, absorb them and dissolve into them.
b) Single out each separate sound in turn, be able increase its intensity.
c) Apprehend new, unknown noises, space vibrations.
a) Percept solely colours. b) Single out each colours and be able to increase its intensity. c) See the luminescence and the twinkling of the Space colours.
2.3. Smells (a,b,c).
2.4. Tastes (a,b,c).
2.5. Touch sensation (a,b,c).
2.6. Configurations (a,b,c).
2.7. Motion of the object (a,b,c).
2.8. Percept all object signs together. a) Synthesize all sensations, create unified, polyphonic image. b) Break the borderline between oneself and the world, be opened to its rhythms, feel oneself the inseparable part of it.
2.9. Surprise and ecstasy. Discover the world a new, give it a new and fresh look, see things around as they are.
3. Isolation and perception of the separate qualities of object.
3.1. See solely new qualities .
3.2. See the beauty and harmony.
3.3. Find a mystery and enigma.
3.4. Notice the subtlety, details and nuances.
4. Spatial decenration.
4.1. See the object: a) from above b) from below c) from the inside..
4.2. Percept object from the position of: a) an small insect, b) a huge mountain. c) any another object and subject
Percept object : a) as an insect-small, b) as a mountain-big comparing to object.
5. Temporal decentration.
a) See the object in the its past and in the future
b) see germs of the future and traces of the past in the object.
6. The expansion of Vision
a) See the objects located in the room all together, b) See simultaneously all the events happen in the house at the moment, c)…in the town, d)…in the your country, e)…on the Earth, f)…in the Universe.
b) See the history of the object, its origin, Culmination and completion on the “unfolded time screen”.
2. Creative Emotional Expereance
1. Enjoying the play of colours, sounds and shapes, the delight of the world beauty and harmony.
2. Emotional decentration. Emotional attitude towards the object: a) Love, b) Hatred, c) Indifference, d) Irony, e) “Sub specie aeternitatis”
3. Identification with the object, immersion and assimilation with it, intuitive comprehension of its unique essence.
4. Cognitive self-division from the object, holistic, simultaneous perception of object’s connections, harmony and symmetry.
5. Enjoyment of the play with the object: manipulation of its qualities and perception of its unexpected manifestations.
6. Transpersonal, peak experience of its original and exceptional value.
3. Creative Analysis
1. Doubt the existing conceptions, be free from imposed settlement of the common sense.
2. Determine the nature of the object.
2.1.What’s its main function?
2.2. What are its main needs and goals?
2.3.What does it produce?
2.4. Simplify the object in the imagination, put aside everything secondary, unimportant. a) Express its essence in one word, b) By symbol, c) By a metaphor ( including that containing paradox ) d) In a formula, e) On a diagram.
3. Split the object into its constituents, define a) substantial, b) opposite, c) weak but useful
4. Comprehend the whole complex of connections and relations with other objects.
5. Define the structure of the object.
5.1.Distinguish between the structural levels. a) What is the over-system and its goal, b) What are the under-systems and their goals (determine how the system transforms the matter, energy and information).
c) What is the anti-system and its goal.
5.2.Define the temporal structure. a) Imagine the object in the past and in the future, b) Define the line of the development: the beginning, the peak and the end. See the point where the object is located at the present moment .
6. Semantic decentration.
6.1.Apprehend how the object is treated in different sciences: philosophy, economics, psychology, physics, mathematics, etc.
6.2.Unified, polyphonic vision of the object, creation and application of different points of view of: a) A genius, b) A professional,
c) A laymen, d) A child e) An animal f) An inanimate object.
6.3.Place the object in different imaginative paradoxical, fantastic situations.
6.4.Semantic “rotation” of the object by means of different lists of test questions.
7. Determine the main contradictions within the object between:
a) Ideal and reality,
b) Aims of system, over system and under system,
c) The present, the past, the future,
d) Recourses and their use,
e) Opposite signs.
4. Creative Comprehension
1. The vision of the ideal nature of the object, mental creation of its ideal image and conditions of its realization.
2. Resacralization of the object, admission of its undoubtful value.
3. Treating the object as a necessary link in the history and the ref-lection of the Absolute.
4. Blending in and assimilation with the Absolute, acquisition of the unified, cosmic consciousness, cosmic consciousness, reception of the energy and information streams from the superior worlds.
5. Creative Manipulation And Handling
1. Free, profound and sincere self-expression and affirmation of one’s own genuine
nature, enjoyment of liberty, ability to create, overcome of causality and time, reinforce the essence of objects and forthcoming them closer to the ideal. Dizzy realization that “Everything is possible” and “Everything is achievable”.
2. Free handling with the object.
Table 2. Major Techniques of Creative Vision
|1. Insert parts of the space into each
other like set of nesting dolls.
2. Go to the super-system.
3. Used the superior higher dimension.
|1. See the process as the temporal
integrity: the beginning,
the culmination and the end.
2. Start from the end point.
a). Preliminary actions.
|1. Imagine that everything have been achieved, all contradictions resolved.
2. Start from the end point.
3. Give the object the ability to independently resolve contradictions and problems, imagine that everything comes true by itself like in a fairy tale.
a). Creation of the perfect plan;
b). “Universal Action” – object performs the functions of any other objects can be whatever you like.
|1. Giving asymmetry to the structure of the object
2. Restructuring: a whole – performs one function part – opposite.
|1. Swinging open of opposites in time: the principle of periodic action.||1. Increase and sharpening of differences.
2. Creating a collision between two harmful factors.
3. The principle of paradox, of the “explosion”, an incident and catharsis.
|1. Change the dimension of the object.
2. Turn the object incide.
3. Resize the object and its parts
from 0 to ∞.
| 1. Watch the object from the future and the past.
2. Turn the time back.
3. Change time of the events from time 0 to ∞.
4. The principle of “breakthrough”.
| 1. Put an object in the most unexpected situations.
2. Using the transition states.
3. The principle of partial or excessive action.
4. Implement the opposite effect and anti function.
5. Change the price and basic function from 0 to ∞.
Techniques: a). do the opposite b). turn harm in favor ,
c). increase a harmful factor and use the energy of injury
d). compensate a one harmful factor by others.
|1. Getting rid of needless parts.
2. The “carrying out” principle.
3. Mediator’s principal – manipulation with a copy of the object.
|1. The principle of “substitution expensive longevity on the cheap short-lived sequence”.||1. Deliverance from internal and external constraints.
2. Getting rid of the false assumptions and redundant information.
3. Getting rid of the usual terminology, the creation of neologisms.
|1. Take up the position of the object in space and to see other objects from its point of view.
2. Adopt the shape and dimension of the object.
|1. Feel the object rhythm and natural frequency, enter into resonance with him.||1. Get used to object, re-embody object.
2. Using the principles of uniformity, synchronization and resonance.
Techniques: a). personal analogy
b). “Method of Little Men” – imagine oneself like the team
of little men who become a parts of the object.
|1. Removal from object in space.||1. Keep at a distance from the past and future.||1. Anaxiomatization – a temporary aloofness from the problem, devaluation of problem and conventional ways and methods of it’s solving. Solving the problem by means of their elimination, through complete rejection of them. Solving the problem by it’s elimination, by avoiding and ignoring.
2. Cognitive exclusion and alienation from the subjective “Ego” also from the object and the relationship with him.
| 1. Unfold the object into the separate parts and shuffle its:
a). among themselves;
b). with parts of other objects.
2. Turn form a single object in the form of another.
| 1. Fragment process at the stage (periods of time) and shuffle its:
a). among themselves;
b). with the stage of other processes.
2. Turn the temporal order ant rhythm of one object into the order of another one.
|1. Single out the object attributes, properties, functions and shuffle its:
a). among themselves;
b). with the properties and functions of other objects.
2. Transform the qualities of one object into another one, to see the transition point.
3. Endow the object with senses of other objects.
|1. The minimizing of Intervention principle.
2.Principle of Non-interference.
|1 Principle of Dynamization: make immovable objects or its separate parts – mobile.||1.The principle of “wu-wei” (non-action). Eliminate the idle actions.
2. Creating such kind of a structure, which itself resolves emergent contradictions.
3. Implementation of the principles of self-service, self-correcting and independent use of resources.
The method described above can serve as a form of creative self-training or meditation where the sequence the value and the velocity of the stages can be changed depending on conditions and qualitative kinds of involved into interaction. By means of mechanisms of immersion, coagulation and automation it appropriated by the personality, consolidated and turned into a steady personal structure the creative position of the personality.
At the same time this method is the way of unified creative vision of the reality and serves as a basis for the definition and revelation of vital contradictions of the object and presents the possibility to create different methods of solving specific life problems.
1. Markov, S.L. (2011) Formuvannia tvorchogo bachennia osobystosti jak universalnyi metod aktivizacii tvorchosti [Formation of creative vision of an individual as the universal method of enhancing creativity]. In S.D. Maksimenko & L.M. Karamushka (Eds.), Actualni problemy psichologii. Vol 1. (pp. 374-380). Kyiv: Publishing House “A.C.K”.
CELEBRITIES ABOUT CREATIVITY
Success is often achieved by those who don’t know that failure is inevitable.
Coco Chanel (August 19, 1883 – January 10, 1971), French fashion designer
Those who create are rare; those who cannot are numerous. Therefore, the latter are stronger.
When I can no longer create anything, I’ll be done for.
There is no time for cut-and-dried monotony. There is time for work. And time for love. That leaves no other time.
Innovation! One cannot be forever innovating. I want to create classics
A leader has the vision and conviction that a dream can be achieved. He inspires the power and energy to get it done.
Ralph Lauren (born October 14, 1939), American fashion designer
I’m just trying to make a smudge on the collective unconscious.
David Letterman (born April 12, 1947), American television host and comedian
I cannot sing, dance or act; what else would I be but a talk show host.
There is no off position on the genius switch.
Create the highest, grandest vision possible for your life, because you become what you believe
Oprah Winfrey (born January 29, 1954), American talk show host and producer
Follow your instincts. That’s where true wisdom manifests itself.
Everyone has to learn to think differently, bigger, to open to possibilities.
Think like a queen. A queen is not afraid to fail. Failure is another steppingstone to greatness.
The biggest adventure you can take is to live the life of your dreams.
The greatest discovery of all time is that a person can change his future by merely changing his attitude.
Turn your wounds into wisdom.
Doing the best at this moment puts you in the best place for the next moment.
Understand that the right to choose your own path is a sacred privilege. Use it. Dwell in possibility.
I don’t think I could not have been with an artist of some kind, someone creative.
Heidi Klum (born June 1, 1973), German model and television host
You want to feel that you can do something creative that you love without being picked apart and mutilated for other people’s pleasure.
Sienna Miller (born December 28, 1981), English actress and model
Knowing yourself and coming to trust your feelings and your intuition will open up your life to greater possibilities and keep you moving toward your goals. One thing I have learned is that I should trust my ‘gut’ instincts. Ultimately, only we know what is best for us.
Miranda Kerr (born 20 April 1983), Australian model
Read more: Geniusrevive.com
Frank Xavier Barron
(June 17, 1922, Lansford, Pennsylvania – October 6, 2002, Santa Cruz, California) (Aged 80)
Nationality: United States
Occupation: Psychologist, Professor, Non-Fiction Writer, Poet
Specification: A pioneer in the psychology of creativity and in the study of human personality, professor of Psychology at the University of California Santa Cruz. Psychology of Creativity
Family: Barron married Nancy Jean Camp in 1961, and they had three children: Francis Charles Xavier, Brigid Jessica Sarah, and Anthea Rose Maeve.
Education: In 1937 he attended La Salle University, from which he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1942. He received his Master of Arts from the University of Minnesota in 1948, and his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1950.
Influences: Dante, Augustine, Yeats, Galton,Pavlov, Fechner, W. James, Freud, Jung, Bergson, Teilhard de Chardin, Binet and Piaget.
Career: Barron served the U.S. Army (1943 – 1946) in Europe as a medical sergeant. He taught as a visiting professor at Harvard, Bryn Mawr College, University of Hawaii, Wesleyan and from 1949 to 1968 worked as a founding member of the Institute of Personality Assessment and Research (IPAR) at UC Berkeley. From 1969 until his retirement in 1992 he taught courses in personality and human creativityat the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Personality: Barron had a gentle heart, great sense of humor and impressed with his erudition , subtlety of mind and love of language. He was fond of poetry and wrote a book of poems “Ghosts”.
Read more: genvive
E. PAUL TORRANCE
Ellis Paul Torrance
(October 8, 1915, Milledgeville, Georgia – July 12, 2003, Athens, GA) (Aged 87)
Nationality: United States
Occupation: Psychologist, educator.
Specification: He known as the “Father of Modern Creativity”, creator of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT).
Educational psychology, Psychology of Creativity
Family: In 1959, at the age of 44, he married Pansy Nigh ( 1913-1988), his nursing student and later a nursing educator and his willing supportive and partner.
Education: Bachelor of Arts (1940) Mercer University, Master’s degree in educational psychology (1944) University of Minnesota, Ph.D. (1951) University of Michigan.
Career: In 1936 he began his teaching career at Midway Vocational High School and in 1937 at Georgia Military College. In 1945, he drafted by U.S. Army and became a counselor of disabled veterans at the University of Minnesota Counseling Bureau. In 1951 he became a director of the Survival Research of the U.S. Air Force in Colorado In 1958, he returned to the University of Minnesota and served as director of the Bureau of Educational Research until 1966. He had been the head of the Educational Psychology Dept (1966 – 1978), and professor (1978 -1984) at the University of Georgia (UGA). He retired from Georgia in 1984. In 1984, the UGA established the Torrance Center for Creativity and Talent Development.
Personality: Torrance had a kind, gentle and generous character. He was an eminence mentor and teacher and always demonstrated the respect and support for his colleagues and students.
1. Creativity. Torrance devoted his career to teaching and researching creativity. His interest in creativity emerged in 1937 from his observation that many his difficult student went on to become successful in life and work. During his working for the U.S. Air Force (1951-57), he developed his survival definition of creativity, which stated that a courageous risk- taking is essential for creativity.
Later he defines creativity as “…the process of sensing gaps or disturbing, missing elements; forming ideas or hypotheses concerning them; testing these hypotheses; and communicating the results, possibly modifying and retesting the hypotheses” (1962).
2. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) or Minnesota Tests of Creative Thinking (MTCT).
2.1. Torrance with his collegues invented the most widely known, The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, which was published in 1966. Torrance have used many of Guilfords (1950, 1956) concepts in their test construction. but in contrast to Guilford, he sought both verbal and figural activities and grouped the different subtests of the TTCT into three categories: 1. Verbal tasks using verbal stimuli. 2. Verbal tasks using non-verbal stimuli. 3. Non-verbal tasks.
2.2. He developed a benchmark method for quantifying creativity . At the beginning he used use Guilford’s (1956) four divergent thinking factors: 1. Fluency. The total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus. 2.Flexibility. the number of different categories or shifts in responses. 3.Originality. the number of unusual yet relevant ideas and the statistical rarity of the responses. 4. Elaboration. The amount of detail used to extend a response(1966, 1974).
2.3.Then Torrance decided to enhance the scoring of the figural tests. The third edition of the TTCT eliminated the Flexibility scale from the figural test, but added Resistance to Premature Closure and Abstractness of Titles as two new criterion-referenced scores on the figural (1984). Using this system, the figural tests are scored according to five norm referenced scores and 13 criterion referenced scores . So TTCT-Figural form measures five subscales: (1) fluency, (2) originality, (3) elaboration, (4) abstractness of titles and (5) resistance to premature closure.
The criterion-referenced measures include: emotional expressiveness, story-telling articulateness, Movement or actions, expressiveness of titles, syntheses if incomplete figures, synthesis if lines, if circles, unusual visualization, extending or breaking boundaries, humor, richness of imagery, colourfulness of imagery, and fantasy.
2.4. The newest version of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Goff and Torrance, 2002) measured 4 norm-referenced abilities: 1. fluency, ability to produce numerous ideas relating to the activity. 2. originality, ability to produce ideas which are not generally produced. 3. elaboration, ability to embellish ideas relating to the activity. 4. flexibility, ability to interpret similar stimulus in different ways.
2.5. Torrance and his associates administered the Minnesota Tests of Creative Thinking (MTCT) to several thousands of school children. They also completed the 40-year longitudinal study on creativity, done on 215 students that attended two Minneapolis elementary schools from 1958-1964.
Moreover Torrance is aware that the use of the TTCT, is still not able to measure the essence of creativity, that a high degree of the measured creative abilities only increases a person’s chances of behaving creatively.
3. Threshold hypothesis. Torrance proposed popular model is what has come to be known as “the threshold hypothesis”, which holds that, in a general sample, there will be a positive correlation between low creativity and intelligence scores, but a correlation will not be found with higher scores.
4. Future Problem Solving Program. Torrance created the Future Problem Solving Program and developed the Incubation Model of Teaching, which has now expanded and reached over 250,000 students internationally.
This program stimulates critical and creative thinking skills, extend perceptions of the real world, encourages students to develop a vision for the future, Integrate problem solving into the curriculum, offer authentic assessment and prepares students for leadership roles.”
He wrote: “I have always been interested in empowering children, releasing their creative potential. But first I had to measure that potential. So I have a reputation as a psychometrician, but all along I have worked with the development of creativity” (1989).
Awards: Torrance was the recipient of the Arthur Lipper Award of the World Olympics of the Mind for outstanding original contributions to human creativity, an elected member of Who’s Who in the World.
Hew was a veteran of the U.S. Army and a member of Athens First Baptist Church.
E. Paul Torrance had a total of 1,871 publications, including 88 books, 256 parts of books or cooperative volumes, 408 journal articles, and 538 reports, 64 forewords, manuals, tests and instruction materials, that have been translated into more than 32 languages.
1. Torrance, E. P. (1962). Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2. Torrance, E. P. (1965). Rewarding Creative Behavior. Experiments in Classroom Creativity. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 3. Torrance, E. P. (1966). 4. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Norms technical manual (Research Edition). Princeton, NJ: Personnel Press. 5. Torrance, E. P. (1974). Norms-technical manual: Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Lexington, MA: Ginn and Company. 6. Torrance, E.P. (1974). Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Scholastic Testing Service, Inc. 7. Torrance, E. P. (1979). The search for Satori and creativity. New York: Creative Education Foundation. 8. Torrance, E. P., & Safter, H. T. (1990). The Incubation Model: Getting beyond the aha! Buffalo, NY: Bearly. 10. Torrance, E. P., & Safter, H. T. (1999). Making the creative leap beyond. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation Press. 11. Torrance, E. P., & Sisk, D. A. (1997). Gifted and talented children in the regular classroom. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation Press. 12. Torrance, E. P. (1994). Creativity: Just wanting to know. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Benedic Books. 13. Torrance, E. P. (1995) Why Fly? A philosophy of creativity. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 14. Torrance, E. P. (2001). Experiences in developing creativity measures: Insights, discoveries, decisions. Manuscript submitted for publication. 15. Goff, K., & Torrance, E. P. (2002). Abbreviated Torrance test for adults manual. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic. Testing Service, Inc.
JOY PAUL GUILFORD
(March 7, 1897, Marquette, Nebraska, USA – November 26, 1987, Los Angeles) (Aged 90)
Nationality: United States
Specification: Author of a three-dimensional model of the intellect and the concept of the Divergent Thinking. Applied psychology: psychometrics. One of the founders of the Psychology of Creativity.
Family: His wife – Ruth, his daughter – Joan S. McGuire (Author of the book about her father “An Odyssey of the SOI Mode”).
Education: Guilford graduated from the University of Nebraska. (1918-1924). In 1924 he entered the psychology Ph.D. program at Cornell University, where he studied under Edward Titchener and Kurt Koffka. He was awarded the Ph.D. in 1927.
Career: Guilford taught at the University of Kansas (1927 – 1928), worked as Associate Professor at University of Nebraska (1928 – 1940) and Psychology professor at the University of Southern California (1940 – 1967). In 1941 he entered the U.S. Army and served as Director of Psychological Research Unit No. 3 at Santa Ana Army Air Base.
1. Structure of Intellect (SOI) or (SI): three-dimensional model.
Guilford proposed that intelligence is not a unitary concept and introduced a three-dimensional theoretical model of the Structure of the intellect, according to which the intellect may be represented by three aspects:
– operation (cognition, memory, divergent production, convergent production, evaluation),
– products (units, classes, relations, systems, transformations, and implications),
– content (visual, auditory, symbolic, semantic, behavioral).
The 5 x 6 x 5 figure provides 150 possible abilities (1955). The final version of the SOI model (1988) was resembled as a cube with 3 dimesions, or 6 x 5 x 6 figure. In this model Guilford introduced some new operations (cognition, memory recording, memory retention, convergent production, divergent production, and evaluation). That yields 180 possible unique abilities, which are correlated with each other.
2. Creativity. Guilford in his 1950 American Psychological Association (APA) presidential address emphasized the central significance of creative talent for industry, science, arts and education and the need for more research into the nature of creativity. He developed a theory of creativity, in which he described creativity as sensitivity to problems (1950); as divergent thinking and ability to generate multiple ideas (1959), creation of new patterns, a transformation of knowledge and meaning or use the functions of objects in a new way (1962, 1967).
3. Divergent thinking. Guilford first proposed the concept of Divergent Thinking in the 1950s and later introduced its developed model as the main ingredient of creativity (1976). Thus he directly associated divergent thinking with creativity, appointing it several characteristics:
1. Fluency (the ability to produce great number of ideas or problem solutions).
2. Flexibility (the ability to simultaneously propose a variety of approaches to a specific problem).
3. Originality (the ability to produce new, original ideas).
4. Elaboration (the ability to systematize and organize the details of an idea in a head and carry it out).
He also emphasized the distinction between convergent and divergent thinking.
4. Psychometric study of human intelligence. Guilford is one of the leaders of the psychometric school of research on intelligence, creativity and personality. He was a pioneer in the development of a system of psychological tests for the study of productive thought and creative abilities of the individual. He designed numerous tests that measured divergent or creative thinking and the intellectual ability of creative people.
Guilford’s methods have been widely used with the practical aim of identifying the creative potentialities of engineers and scientific workers and gifted students.
5. Honors and awards: President of the Psychometric Society(1938); President of the Western Psychological Association (1946); President of the American Psychological Association (1949); Doctor of Laws (University of Nebraska.1952); PhD, Sociology (University of Southern California, 1962), Gold Medal of the American Psychological Foundation (1983).
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